A

Reclangular piece ol silver sheet of 24 or 22 gauge is centered and stamped with the rosette stamp on a flat anvil. This particular die has an embossed diamond center which is punched by Fitting the stamped piece back onto the die and embossing it with the special diamond tool. it is then domed in a wooden block with a smooth round punch. A copper ring is soldered to the back of the button and il is then buffed and polished.

C

These buttons were made Irom pieces of silver punched by a smooth surface cone punch into a female rosette die. This type ot button has been very popular among Ihe Navajo and many Ihoussnds have been made and worn. are designed to stamp roseties in silver on a tlat anvil. Afterwards the rosettes are domed. This is a string of miniature buttons probably made for a doll or a little girl's wrists. These are very (4 old buttons j v taken Irom a decayed piece of leather found , in the Ule country ot...

Cuff I Inks

It is usually easier to bend the loop or ring with a pair of round nose pliers at ihe top of the pendant alter polishing. Matched square stones of blue gem turquoise are selected. Matched square stones of blue gem turquoise are selected. Bezels are made and soldered to plates. If no decoration is desired (he plale is clipped or sawed close to the bezel and tiled smooth.

Determining The Size Or Gauge Of Silver Wire Or

The American standard wire gauge for non ferrous metals is used to find the size and thickness of mill run shapes of silver, copper brass, and aluminum TW pieces inserted in (hi gauge slot Hlu si rate '1 he correct way to determine the size of ibe sheet of wire, * The holes around the edge are only for relief of the expansion of the metal of the gauge and not for checking the gauge of the wire. determine the size In thousands of an inch and checked with a table of sizes to gel the gauge. A...

Dress Ornaments

PINS AND BROOCHES Many Southwestern Indians wear numerous silver ornaments often mounted with turquoise, on their brightly-color velvet blouses. A group of joints, catches and pins of different lengths The pin should not be healed because it ruins the temper. The Indians were fond of reproducing figures of birds and insects in silver. A butterfly pin made in the same manner as the dragonfly pin. Usually two small copper rings are sotdered onto the bach of these manta ornaments for fastening...

Info

JThis handy ring size charl will give an Idea of the size of a ring when (he ring is laid flal on the paper with the inside diameter oi the ring almost covering Ihe printed circle. For better accuracy and to measure the linger size, a metal ring gauge should be used butsome of these are only accurate to within 1 4 of a size. JiT h .L mgsl accurate tool to measure a ring by is a graduated steel ring mandrel. JiT h .L mgsl accurate tool to measure a ring by is a graduated steel ring mandrel.

Tit

Sit there are too many cracks or a strip of silver Is not advisable, t1- ones can be repaired with epoxy When a stone JHsroken in a piece of ewelry It can be atiracUvely mended by Colored to match the matrix with a little dry forcing the bezel away Irom the stone al both sides of the crack. Then forming a > lor, and when hard, filing off the excess strip of 28 gauge silver across the crack and down Into the space made between and then lightly buffing. the bezel and the stone. II wilt be more...

X9

Two Oieces of 12 the wire onto the si1ver I . 1 P(ate before stamping because gauge V.i round silver J' cnMae (ha This is a feather style earring with the ends of the feathers pointing In apposite directions to conform to each ear. wire are cut and tapered at one and 3 and then soldered on after they are curved to fit the shape of the feather. excess solder can flow into the grooves and ruin the design. The feathers are then domed In a wooden block, the ear screw finding soldered on the back...

Iflr

J JfV *tU -ft fr HjwMnMuMnM ) Five steps in making a punch A half round piece ol file is flattened 90 degrees to the long ants. The outside of the* 1an> p with ir blow of the hammer. Seratlons are - -1 on the inside with a smalt triangle needle tile. Straitens are filed on the outilde of the ere scent wit ha number 1 checkering til*. The stamp Is now ready for hardening and tempering. and should be reheated and quenched again lo harden. h vik,, * thin crescent slamp can be made HBk m from a...

Bracelet Making

The multiple stone bracelet based on the decorated or stamped triangle wire shank is one ot the most attractive and graceful bracelets made by the Southwestern Indians. Two pieces of 3 triangel wire are cut to length, the center found, and the portion 1o be decorated is marked. The bezels are made for the stones and soldered on to 24g plates just large enough to accommodate them. The stones are chosen, because at this lime the width between the two triangle segments must be determined. The ends...

Volume I

Southwestern Indian jewelry has probably become the foremost American craft. It has not only become a monetary investment for millions of Americans but an investment in beauty they can enjoy every minute of the day. We think of it as truly American, and it really is. The squash blossom necklace is composed of three main components all of foreign origins. They are put together in a very unique and original manner. Possibly nowhere else in the world has such a beautiful piece of jewelry been...

Hair Ornaments

Decoration is soldered onto 26 * gauge silver plate J and then fastened to the comb. An old comb of about 1925 vintage A P r o' Almost Spanish In style, ornamental hairpins can be made by cutting 2 attractive horseshoe shaped pieces Irom 22 gauge silver sheet Recently the Indians f have made the inexpensive plastic comb into a piece of Jewelry by adding a plate of ornamented silver along the top. The early combs were all silver but proved to be too heavy to stay in place In the hair A design is...

Wrought Link Chain

Ttractlve chain Is made by winding 14 gauge 1 2 round wire around 1 2 on or copper mandrel and soldering the links together and completing > > iJ ' VSraw- logether in Ihe shape of ' - 'to s an hourglass by inserting iffr', awS ' -i''-'8 P> lf of round nose pliers n In the ends of each link and squeezing the center WRAPPED LINK CHAIN 1i together by using another ' . , , r' pliers. 24 gauge wire ( v _ __ times around the center of This small wire is held securely by placing the end under...

Acid

Thr purpose of antiquing or darkening Indian silver jewelry fs to create a control between the mcised design and the polished surface. Hil-oii is an antiquing or darkening fluid. It works very quickly, keeps well, should be applied with an iron wire. Sulturated potash or liver of sulfur, must be mixed with water, darkens rather slowly. Less expensive than Hil-ox but has an objectionable odor of rotten eggs and the solution Is good only for a goggles should nlways be worn whfle butting. the...

Chain With Twisted Wire Links

A hook and eyelet are soldered to the ends to complete the chain. The three wire hank are made by cutting three pieces of 12 wire to the proper teng ih for the size oi ring. The outside segments are bent and soldered long the center. The shank is bent around the mandrel end the top ends tiled ftat to sil level on the plate. The bezel is formed to fit the stone and soldered onto the plate. A piece of twisted wire is formed and soldered onto the plate around the beiel and trimmed and filed. jfc s...

One Half Round Wire Long Link Chain

This chain Is made from 12 gauge 1 2 round silver wire, wound around a 1 2 Inch copper mandrel. The formed wire is s I Ipped from the mandrel and each link snipped or sawed st the end. A number of links are soldered and then two links are joined by a third link, These sections ot three links each are joined until the chain is j . ot proper J length. This chain is made by winding 18 gauge round wire around a 7 8 Inch mandrel made from a piece of flattened copper tubing. To f I nlsh. a hook is...

The Butterfly Spacer

A piece of silver of 18 gauge thickness Is cul to 1 x 2 Inches and Ihe center marked. The butterfly spacer or bell tilde Is of unknown origin appearing in pictures of Navajo Indians wearing concha belts sometime after 1900. its vertical lines make a striking contrast to the horizontal lines of the oval concha, and presents i V another element to give the artistic Indian VJa mind full play. The female die is stamped Into Ihe front side of the sliver blank, forming a flower-like design. A...

The Silver Band Ring

This bracelet was the type first made by the Navajo Indians of the Southwest tl is one of the simplest bracelets to make and requires only a few tools to complete. It Is attractive and can be worn equally well by both men and women, and is often worn in pairs. It was probably the first type to be set with turquoise and can be set with one or even dozens of stones. This bracelet is basically a strip of 1 gauge silver cut to wrist size. ' M is shaped by '(. trimming off triangles ol silver as...

Zi

A unique hand stamped naja displaying a Iree form cut turquoise. 1975. A turquoise covered necklace ' probably Zuni Indian made about 1920. It has a Navajo made clasp of v unique Wy stamped desr A beautiful sliver squash blossom necklace of the 1940s. A unique hand stamped naja displaying a Iree form cut turquoise. 1975. is unique necklace was originated by the Navajo from three fore elements. The silver beads were evidently evolved from two button halves soldered together to make a bead. The...

The Multiple Stone Ring

The multiple stone ring is essentially Ihe same as Ihe single slqne ring except fhe shank in mast cases should be heavier and sometime wHi be made with a three prong shank rather than two. The mans style ring Is usually larger and heavier than other types of rings and quite Irequenlty the stones are rectangular or square. This Is a broken paring knife which Is a very useful tool to the silversmith. In this case it Is used to spread the shank segments when the shank Is being held in a vise. A...

Silver Casting

Using a torch tor melting he silver In a ceramic crucible. in some molds a piece of line binding wire can be shaped around Ihe design to make the silver thicker and have a more perfect The design is marked on one lace and Itien carved Into the surface. A gate or channel must be cut in both surface to act as a funnel lor the liquid metal. The surface of both molds Is heated and smoked or covered with a layer of carbon or sool. A Naja mold which haB produced a large numbei ol castings. fl The...

Stamping Triangle

Brickstitch Rose Earrings

The problem of stamping a design on triangle wire is solved by cutling a Irian shaped slot with a ha lt in a piece ot railroad Triangle bracelet segments are easily stamped and assembled. The slot should be cut so one face of the triangle wire is flat while stamping, which makes one face vertical. ade and O sioi ady a piece of thin cardboard is cut to pad the ne. Depending ojjbn the thickness ol _ stone, several layers o cardboard can be used tc niake the stone high enough A ring stone should...

The Round Pill

This pillbox is designed around the small button or concha which Is used as 8 top. A piece of 1 a gau ge sitve r sh eet is stamped In a mate and female concha die to make a concha. Scallops are filed outlining the design. A small crescent punch Is used to stamp a design around the ridges. This mandrel was made by pouring some melted white melal or die cast alloy into a piece of 1-3 6 inch gas pipe, 1-3 6 inches deep. The other or wider strip is bent around the mandrel and the ends soldered...

The Motherinlaw Bell

Gauge Bezel Wire

The mother-in-law bell was probably one of the first things Ihe Navajo silversmith learned to make Irom the Mexicans, A mother-in-law beil can be made by cutting a 2-tnch Vmaltese cross shaped piece ol silver from I 24 gauge sheet silver. A serpent on an arrow pin of the early 1920's. After stamping a design on it, bend it into Ihe form of a square bell. The edges are then soldered together. 4 insert a double ring 4 10 hold the bell and ' the tiny clapper. This 1 lt j hook is soldered into...

The Cup Type Earring

Types Indian Hats

Patented spring clip that grabs or pinches the earlobe are soldered onto the backs and the earrings polished. There are several types available at jewelry supply stores. Two sizes are shown here -rHolh of sterling silver. They come in two parts, one to be soldered onto the earring and Tie other, the clip, is to be assembled aher soldering by forcing the two pivot prongs into Jie Holes of the other. More tension or grab can be provided by slightly bending the spring Eece. broad brimmed hat has...

Silver Wire Bracelets

The round wire bracelet Is made by cutting two lengths of 8 gauge round sliver wire and a length of twlaled wire J be about the ,' same diameter yjV of the solid A' wire, A A bezel is made lor the slone and soldered onlo the plate. This is in turn soldered onto the wire bracelet shank, and pickled after each soldering operation. The stone Is set and the bracelet buffed and polished. The side pieces of wire are bent out to fit the size of the stone and the three are soldered together using a...

The Navajo Concha Belt Buckle

A piece of 18 gauge silver sheet is cut 2 inches by 2V .The center is marked and the belt opening marked 1 Inch by inches. Female bicurvate leal-like embossing dies. A hole KS is drilled lo accommodate a jewelers saw blade and a jewelers saw is used to il out the opening for thebal The female is struck first on Ihe face of the buckle and then the - g. male die is punched trom Ihe back forming Ihe embossed design. The buckles on the very y 1 early concha belts were quite small and rather...

The Bellows And Charcoal Soldering Peafod

At this time the only known method or soldering V v jewelry was to heat the abject over burning charcoal J, J and intensifying the heat wtth air from the hand Jfl bellows. This was the period when tools end silver v were scarce. Many of the tool were hand made from pieces of scrap iron recovered from old wagon or harness fittings. Flies were almost a luxury, V The only source of silver was Mexican or American coins and , ' the solder was home made by melting together coins and about 20 o...

The Navajo Concha

This Is the circular or ovate stiver metal plate that gives the belt lis name. The Spanish word concha means shell. A piece of 18 gauge silver sheet is cut to 2' x 2Vj Inches. The center is marked and the rosette Ib stamped In the center ol the rectangular piece ol silver by using a male and female punch and die and a very heavy hammer. An oval outline is drawn around the rosette by measuring equally from the ends ol each segment. The oval is cut along the outline by using either a jewelers saw...

The Gasoline Blowtorch Soldering Period

Kaibab Jewelry

During this period the soldering ol Jewelry on the reservation was done by using the gasoline blowtorch. Carved tufa mold ' for casting a buckle Along with this came a variety f - - y. of imported tools to make silversmithtng a lot easier but still a lot of hard work. Ingot molds were available lor casting ' '. bars of silver and hand powered -' j fli mills to roll it into sheet and ' fiLli dies to pull it into wire. There were ffjfC'y also now available many new tools, some of which were...